[188] Their potent venom is the result of a presynaptic neurotoxin composed of two distinct peptide subunits.

The venom LD50 is 1.80 mg/kg SC according to Broad et al. Elapids are endemic to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, with terrestrial forms in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas alongside marine forms in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. [139], The Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) is another species of cobra which causes a significant number of bites and human fatalities throughout its range. This species is known to be a very shy, reclusive and a laid-back snake that will nearly always slither away from disturbance.

Asian cobras, coral snakes, and American coral snakes also appear to be monophyletic, while African cobras do not.[12][13]. [82] The maximum venom yield is approximately 1000 mg (dry weight). The average annual mortality rate from snakebite was 14 deaths per 100,000 population.

When annoyed, it spreads a narrow hood and growls loudly, but some scientists claim that their aggressiveness is grossly exaggerated. [116], The Philippine cobra (Naja philippinensis) is one of the most venomous cobra species in the world based on murine LD50 studies. Three patients developed necrosis, and 14 individuals with systemic symptoms had no local swelling at all. The LD50 of this species is 2 mg/kg SC and 1.15 mg/kg IV. This is largely due to its forest-dwelling habits.

[135][136] The median lethal dose (LD50) is 0.28-0.33 mg per gram of mouse body weight. Fry, Bryan, Deputy Director, Australian Venom Research Unit, University of Melbourne (March 9, 2002).

Cobra (Naja) venom poisoning is characterized by neurotoxicity and cardiotoxicity. Average venom yield per bite is 10 mg (Brown, 1973), 8 to 20 mg (dry weight) (U.S. Dept. In contrast to what is typical of botany, the family Elapidae was not renamed. The Eastern coral snake inhabits eastern North Carolina south to central Florida and west to Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana to the Mississippi River.

[131] According to Minton (1974), this cobra has a venom yield range of 150 to 200 mg (dry weight). [115] Deaths from respiratory failure have been reported, but most victims will survive if prompt administration of antivenom is undertaken as soon as clinical signs of envenomation have been noted. [199] Although bites are common, death is very rare. However, Nagy et al. Venomous snakes are found in nearly all taxonomic families. Clinical experience with forest cobras has been very sparse, and few recorded bites have been documented.

The bite of the spectacled cobra (Naja naja), on the other hand, causes severe local reaction leading to spreading necrosis and gangrene; only 36% of victims developed neurotoxicity which had rapid onset leading to respiratory failure in 2 hours (Kularatne, 2009). Two to three electrical bursts within a space of five seconds apart were enough to empty the venom glands.

There are more than 200 species of snakes within the Viperidae family. In the past, many subfamilies were recognized, or have been suggested for the Elapidae, including the Elapinae, Hydrophiinae (sea snakes), Micrurinae (coral snakes), Acanthophiinae (Australian elapids), and the Laticaudinae (sea kraits).

The Viperidae Family of Snakes. Only large Bitis or extremely large Bothrops or Crotalus specimens would be able to deliver a bite that is truly intramuscular.

S.L. The Dugite (Pseudonaja affinis) is a highly venomous Australian brown snake species. There is at least one case of human envenomation caused by the Congo water cobra (N. christyi).

As most deaths from elapid envenomation are due to respiratory failure, close monitoring and support of respiratory function is paramount. [71] According to Brown (1973) this species has a murine IP LD50 value of 0.324 mg/kg, while the IV LD50 value is 0.6 mg/kg. This is a truly fascinating group of snakes. (1999), indicating that the protective action of Mucuna pruriens against cobra venom indeed also involves an immunological mechanism. Unlike vipers, more than one fang can sit in the tooth pockets, which helps Elapids strike and hold on to their prey to deliver the maximum amount of venom possible (versus the quick strikes of Vipers).

Of the 15 who did not receive antivenom, 11 died.

[68] There is a 70-80% mortality rate in cases where there is no possible or poor and ineffective treatment (e.g., no use of mechanical ventilation, low quantities of antivenom, poor management of possible infection).

[138], Envenomation usually presents predominantly with extensive local necrosis and systemic manifestations to a lesser degree. The venom sprays out in distinctive geometric patterns, using muscular contractions upon the venom glands.

It is a polypeptide analogous to the human atrial natriuretic peptide; it is responsible for causing diuresis through natriuresis and dilating the vessel bloodstream, which results in, among other things, acceleration of venom distribution in the body of the victim, thereby increasing tissue permeability. These toxins may result in local tissue destruction and a consumptive coagulopathy. It is the largest of the Naja cobras and the venom is considered highly toxic.

[157] The West African spitting cobra is one of the most common causes of snakebite in Senegal.

Viper venom serves two purposes.

For comparison, the Indian cobra's (naja naja) subcutaneous LD50 is 0.80 mg/kg, while the Cape cobra's (naja nivea) subcutaneous LD50 is 0.72 mg/kg. [87], The venom is possibly the most toxic of any Bungarus (krait) species and possibly the most toxic of any snake species in Asia, with LD50 values of 0.09 mg/kg[73]—0.108 mg/kg SC,[15][88] 0.113 mg/kg IV and 0.08 mg/kg IP on mice. Elapid snakes are typified by the cobras. The advanced saliva mixtures that lead to various painful venoms has placed venomous snakes into unique categories of their very own.

[134] The venom of this species also contains myotoxins and cardiotoxins. This feature is also used when feeding and allows the fangs "walk" prey down their throats (whole). A few species are capable of spraying their venom from forward-facing holes in their fangs for defense, as exemplified by spitting cobras. Bites by the Philippine cobra produce a distinctive clinical picture characterized by severe neurotoxicity of rapid onset and minimal local tissue damage. Coral snakes have short fixed front fangs and a poorly developed system for venom delivery, thereby requiring a chewing action to inject the venom. Prognosis depends on the amount of venom delivered and size of the patient and supportive care. [58] Envenomation rate is very high, over 80% of bites inject venom. Chanhome, L., Cox, M. J., Vasaruchaponga, T., Chaiyabutra, N. Sitprija, V. (2011). [182] While the lethal doose for a 60 kg adult human is 18 mg.[122], The neotropical rattlesnake in Brazil is of special importance because of the high incidence of envenoming and mortality rates. All elapids have a pair of proteroglyphous fangs to inject venom from glands located towards the rear of the upper jaw. In case studies of black mamba envenomation, respiratory paralysis has occurred in less than 15 minutes.

Ernst and Zug et al. S.A.M.

In: Tu, A.

1982. Envenoming occurs in at least 75-80% of bite cases involving these species. Over 100 pages of care advice. It helps the snake kill its prey. Scientists have equally investigated potentials of M. ferrea bioactive compounds as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, antivenom, hepatoprotective, antineoplastic, etc. This species was third, responsible for 5.5% of the snakebites. Clinical signs develop rapidly, and unfortunately there is usually minimal to no local tissue reaction as is seen with other snake bites.

The majority block ACh transmission by competitively binding to the postsynaptic nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors or by presynaptic inhibition of ACh release, which prevents muscle contraction.183,184 The better-known examples of neurotoxins that interrupt postsynaptic binding are krait α-bungarotoxin and naja cobrotoxin (Figure 43-7). Elapids are widely distributed globally, though they do not occur in Europe.

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