The Jews were quieter: the Stern Gang (LEHI) struck only at the British and the Hagana at Arabs only in retaliation.
During the Second World War, the Allies had refrained from countering the Nazis’ antisemitic propaganda as they did not wish to be seen as “friends of the Zionists.” After the war, the Allies chose not to annoy the Arabs and thus refrained from calling the Mufti to account for his crimes.

Historians dispute whether his fierce opposition to Zionism was grounded in nationalism or antisemitism or a combination of both. Husseini, who also had personal interests threatened by these arrangements,[129] also feared that acceptance would strengthen the hand of his political opponents in the Palestine national movement, such as the Nashashibis. In contrast, in 1938, the Egypt government tried to suppress inflammatory propaganda regarding Palestine.51 Why could it not do so a decade later? Without referring to the Brotherhood by name, they identified “the combined momentum of their own rhetoric and pressure from below” as the cause of the Egyptian invasion of Israel. Many Arabs regarded the Mufti as a charismatic leader who had defied not only the British arrest warrant of 1937 but also the demands for his extradition by the British, Yugoslav and American governments in 1945. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The second volunteer force, the Arab League-sponsored Arab Liberation Army, was led by another former Wehrmacht officer, Fawzi el-Kawkji. Worldwide Jewish protests remonstrated with Britain for the violence exercised at the Wall. The direct cause of terror was partition; other causes were the Arabs patriotic feelings and their hatred of Jews. Neither the Brotherhood nor the Mufti would have been in a position to whip up war fever through the use of anti-Jewish attacks in Palestine. On November 29, 1947, over two-thirds of the United Nations membership voted in favor of General Assembly Resolution 181 proposing a partition of Palestine: 56% of the mandate territory was assigned to a Jewish state and 43% to an Arab state, with Jerusalem under international administration.1 The Jews in Palestine danced for joy in the streets all night. [19] The al-Husseini clan consisted of wealthy landowners in southern Palestine, centered around the district of Jerusalem.

He was involved in some high level negotiations between Arab leaders—before and during the War—at a meeting held in Damascus in February 1948, to organize Palestinian Field Commands and the commanders of the Holy War Army. ", Nazis, Islamists, and the Making of the Modern Middle East, "Parallels between Nazi and Islamist Anti-Semitism", "Frenchman, Jews, or Arabs? On the contrary, as late as 1954 he proudly stated “that Hitler admired the struggle of the Palestinian Arabs.”68 Similarly, the Muslim Brotherhood has never distanced itself from the Mufti’s alliance with Hitler. We are behind you! Seated in Egyptian-ruled Gaza, this government won limited recognition by Arab states but was eventually dissolved by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1959. [197], Himmler asked me on the occasion: "How do you propose to settle the Jewish question in your country?" 3 For the stages of the war, see: Benny Morris, 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008) and David Tal, War in Palestine 1948: Strategy and Diplomacy (London: Routledge, 2004). 59 United Press, “Telegramm von König Ibn Saud und Präsident Truman”, as cited by Archiv der Gegenwart, 18 October 1946, 901. The final years of his life were devoted to educational and social work. In short, Jews were not simply to be driven out of the German sphere but would be hunted down and destroyed even beyond it. As Wauchope warned of an impending military campaign and simultaneously offered to dispatch a Royal Commission of Inquiry to hear the Arab complaints, the Arab Higher Committee called off the strike on 11 October. 19 Walter Laqueur and Barry Rubin, eds., The Israel-Arab Reader (New York: Penguin Books, 2001), 54. Both Great Britain and the US backed Jordan, the US saying that the mufti's role in World War II could be neither forgotten nor pardoned. The News International - latest news and breaking news about Pakistan, world, sports, cricket, business, entertainment, weather, education, lifestyle; opinion & blog | brings 24 x 7 updates There were even cases where Arabs actively supported Jewish fighters.11 There was a similar absence of war-like intentions in the Arab League states of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan, Syria, Yemen and Iraq.

27 Richard Breitman and Norman J.W. [233], The Mufti also wrote a pamphlet for the 13th SS Handschar division, translated as Islam i Zidovstvo (Islam and Judaism) which closed with a quotation from Bukhari-Muslim by Abu Khurreira that states: "The Day of Judgement will come, when the Muslims will crush the Jews completely: And when every tree behind which a Jew hides will say: 'There is a Jew behind me, Kill him!". See also the British account of this incident in: Muslims in the Mughrabi Quarter were to make similar complaints against the racket of, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLaqueur2002 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAchcar2010_(b) (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRose1986 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFTripp2002 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBrowning2004 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFYisraeli1974 (, 'It is doubtful whether Eichmann made contact with al-Husseini even in 1942, when the latter resided in Berlin. The allegation is dismissed by most serious historians. The post-war Palin Report noted that the English recruiting officer, Captain C. D. Brunton, found al-Husseini, with whom he cooperated, very pro-British, and that, via the diffusion of War Office pamphlets dropped from the air promising them peace and prosperity under British rule, 'the recruits (were) being given to understand that they were fighting in a national cause and to liberate their country from the Turks'. [267] Despite the fact that he was on the list of war criminals, France decided to consider him as a political prisoner and refused to comply with the British request. Mufti's salary was reduced from eighteen to sixteen rupees per month. That year al-Husseini founded the pro-British Jerusalem branch of the Syrian-based 'Arab Club' (Al-Nadi al-arabi), which then vied with the Nashashibi-sponsored 'Literary Club' (al-Muntada al-Adabi) for influence over public opinion, and he soon became its president.

[290] The opposition of a relevant percentage of the Palestinian society to al-Husseini goes back to an earlier period and was also connected to the British way of dealing with the local majority: 'The present administration of Palestine', lamented for example the representatives of the Palestine Arab Delegation in a letter to British public opinion in 1930, 'is appointed by His Majesty's Government and governs the country through an autocratic system in which the population has no say'. It was first presented at the annual convention of Madrasa Aminia in 1908. “My cousin stumbled and received his proper punishment,” remarked Jamal al-Husseini.34 Another was Sami Taha, a leading trade unionist from Haifa who wanted to grant Jews certain rights and therefore, was murdered in September 1947.35 In 1947, when the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) attempted to gather information, the Arab Higher Committee threatened anyone who talked to the UN body with death.36.
In the end, the French authorities facilitated his escape.29 At the same time, the Arab League was meeting in the Syrian town of Bludan, where it arrived at a far-reaching decision: both the Committee and the Front were summarily dissolved and replaced by a new Arab Higher Committee under the leadership of Amin el-Husseini in which the Mufti’s opponents were denied any role. 21 Gershon Avner to HIS-AD, 13 April 1948, HA 105/31 as quoted by Benny Morris, 1948, 121, and Joseph Nevo, “The Arabs of Palestine, 1947-48: Military and Political Activity,” Middle Eastern Studies, 23, No. [164], On 23 May 1940, Pinhas Rutenberg had suggested to a British official, Bruce Lockhart, that the Mufti be assassinated.

[77] In reply, the Muslims organized a Defence Committee for the Protection of the Noble Buraq,[78] and huge crowd rallies took place on the Al-Aqsa plaza in protest. [239], Among the Nazi leadership, the greatest interest in the idea of creating Muslim units under German command was shown by Heinrich Himmler, who viewed the Islamic world as a potential ally against the British Empire and regarded the Nazi-puppet Independent State of Croatia as a 'ridiculous state'. On November 28, 1941, Adolf Hitler assured his guest, the Mufti of Jerusalem, that as soon as the Wehrmacht reached the southern gates of the Caucasus, “Germany’s objective would then be solely the destruction of the Jewish element residing in the Arab sphere.”19 Three years later, with defeat looming, the Nazis started looking toward the post-war period. [60], The Supreme Muslim Council and its head al-Husseini, who regarded himself as guardian of one of the three holy sites of Islam, launched an international campaign in Muslim countries to gather funds to restore and improve the Haram ash-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary) or Temple Mount, and particularly the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock shrine (which houses also the holiest site in Judaism). [184], A separate record of the meeting was made by Fritz Grobba, who until recently had been the German ambassador to Iraq. [8] His second major work was an Arabic poem, Raudur Rayyaahin, which was published in 1909. He refused requests to lend his support to the emergent PLO after the Six-Day War of 1967,[266] was opposed to the creation of a Palestinian state on the west Bank after 1967. ... Terror ruled Palestine, Macatee wrote.

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