The changing tides make this area a harsh environment to live in. The intertidal zone is the area on a beach situated between the high tide and the low tide. Macroalgae play important roles as the dominant in situ producers, forming the base of local food webs. In summer, at low tide, the temperature can rise significantly in the pools of water that remain behind, exposed to the sun, while at the same time melting glaciers bring fresh water, thus decreasing their salinity. Petraitis, ... S. Dudgeon, in Encyclopedia of Ecology, 2008. Chthamalus larvae settle on the shore in September/October, whereas Balanus settle in April/May. They determined that nutrients always increased macroalgal abundance and consumers moderated that response. Some of these locations may have limited rocky shore as well. The beach is often regarded as an amalgam of tidal zones and surf and swash zones between the Low Wave breaker line and the High Wave run-up limit (Carter, 1988). Compared to the plethora of research on biotic and abiotic interactions in rocky intertidal habitats, comparatively few studies examine the role of nutrients in controlling macroalgal productivity (Menge and Branch, 2001). Direct observation showed that this was due to interference competition from Balanus individuals who smothered, undercut, or crushed Chthamalus individuals. The rocky intertidal zone is characterized by environmental extremes (temperature, salinity, desiccation, nutrient supply), yet there are also strong biotic interactions determining community structure. In addition, they found that, although grazing was important in controlling blooms of opportunistic macroalgae, it could not overcome the effects of increases in N loading across the whole supply gradient. The intertidal zone is washed everyday by the action of sea waves, and the organisms thriving there have adapted to deal with changes in temperature, moisture, turbulence, desiccation and salinity. In the 1950s, Joseph Connell conducted a classic set of removal experiments to test for competitive interactions between two species of barnacle, Chthamalus stellatus and Balanus balanoides. Closing their shells tightly and living in clustered groups helps them to reduce water loss during low tide. The intertidal zone provides habitat to a variety of animal species, such as mollusks, crustaceans, worms, some species of coral and algae. Periwinkles and many marine snails are herbivorous and move across the rocks, grazing algae. Barnacles compete for space in the intertidal zone of rocky shores. Some mollusks, such as limpets, possess hard conical shells that protect them from high wave action. A large variety of animals and plants thrive in a relatively small area in these regions, which is a one-of-a-kind occurrence. Sea stars use the tiny tubes on their legs to move across the ground and pry open shellfish. Rocky shores occur along the coastlines of many Indonesian islands: The west coast of Sumatra is lined by rocky beaches. Intertidal zone animals and plants have been an important source of food for man since thousands of years. Barnacles are famous for having the longest penis-to-body ratio in the animal kingdom. Each quadrat was divided into two halves and from one randomly chosen half all the Balanus individuals were removed. Infralittoral (or sublittoral or lower intertidal): Zone that is not any more affected by the tides and is permanently submerged. Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary: Intertidal Zones. Some crabs such as hermit crabs and decorator crabs adorn their carapaces and shells with pieces of algae, sponge, stones and other found objects for camouflage. They must adapt to survive the constant pounding of waves and extreme temperatures. During low tides, organisms are exposed to the air, higher temperatures and salinity, risking desiccation. What is quite clear is that survival of Chthamalus is much better in those halves of the quadrats without Balanus. However, areas with low ambient nutrients responded to enrichment by increased algal thallus complexity and diversity (Fig. Kunal Satyam, Ganesh Thiruchitrambalam, in Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands, 2018. Bruno David, Thomas Saucède, in The Southern Ocean, 2015. Some recent work is focused on the importance of nutrient supply, especially N, at both the local and regional scales (for a review see Menge and Branch, 2001). Consequently, animals living permanently in the intertidal zone have evolved a variety of anatomical, physiological and behavioral adaptations that enable them to survive in this challenging habitat. The Bay of Fundy in Canada has the most substantial low-to-high tide difference in the world, measuring 65 feet (20 meters). High salinity concentrations usually occur at those locations with high salinity rates, such as intertidal pools and salt marshes.

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